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Medial epicondylitis, commonly known as golfer’s elbow, is a condition that affects the tendons on the inner side of the elbow. It is characterized by pain and inflammation in the area where the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bony bump on the inside of the elbow. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of medial epicondylitis, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and various treatment options available.

What is Medial Epicondylitis?

Medial epicondylitis is a form of tendinopathy that primarily affects the tendons responsible for flexing the wrist and fingers. Despite its name, it is not limited to golfers and can occur in individuals involved in various activities that require repetitive wrist and forearm movements, such as throwing, racket sports, and weightlifting. The repetitive stress placed on these tendons leads to degeneration and subsequent pain and inflammation.

Causes of Medial Epicondylitis

The primary cause of medial epicondylitis is overuse or repetitive strain on the tendons in the forearm. Activities that involve repetitive gripping, wrist flexion, or excessive force can contribute to the development of this condition. Poor technique, inadequate warm-up, and improper equipment can also increase the risk. Certain occupations that involve repetitive forearm movements, such as carpentry or plumbing, may also predispose individuals to medial epicondylitis.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The most common symptom of medial epicondylitis is pain and tenderness on the inner side of the elbow, which may radiate down the forearm. The pain is typically worsened by activities that involve gripping or flexing the wrist. In some cases, weakness in grip strength and forearm muscles may also be experienced. A thorough physical examination, medical history review, and imaging tests, such as an X-ray or MRI, may be performed to diagnose medial epicondylitis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment Options

  1. Rest and Immobilization: The initial approach to treating medial epicondylitis involves resting the affected arm and avoiding activities that aggravate the condition. Immobilization with a brace or splint may be recommended to provide support and reduce strain on the tendons.
  2. Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation: Physical therapy plays a crucial role in the rehabilitation process for medial epicondylitis. Therapeutic exercises, stretches, and techniques such as ultrasound or laser therapy can help improve flexibility, strength, and promote healing.
  3. Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be prescribed to manage pain and reduce inflammation. Topical creams or gels containing NSAIDs can also provide localized relief.
  4. Steroid Injections: Corticosteroid injections may be administered directly into the affected area to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation. However, these injections are typically used sparingly due to potential side effects and the risk of tendon weakening.
  5. Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy involves injecting a concentrated solution of platelets from the patient’s own blood into the affected area. PRP contains growth factors that can aid in tissue regeneration and promote healing.
  6. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy: Shockwave therapy utilizes high-energy sound waves to stimulate healing and reduce pain. This non-invasive treatment option has shown promising results in the management of medial epicondylitis.
  7. Surgical Intervention: In severe cases where conservative treatments have failed, surgery may be considered. The surgical procedure aims to remove damaged tissue and repair the affected tendons, allowing for better healing and pain relief.
  8. Alternative Therapies: Complementary approaches such as acupuncture, massage therapy, and chiropractic care may offer symptomatic relief and support the healing process. These therapies should be discussed with a healthcare professional to ensure their appropriateness and effectiveness.

Prevention and Self-Care

Preventing medial epicondylitis involves taking proactive measures to reduce the risk of overuse injuries. Some key preventive strategies include:

  • Using proper technique and equipment during physical activities.
  • Implementing regular stretching and strengthening exercises for the forearm muscles.
  • Gradually increasing the intensity and duration of activities to allow the tendons to adapt.
  • Taking regular breaks during repetitive tasks to minimize strain on the tendons.
  • Applying ice or cold packs to the affected area after activities to reduce inflammation.

Self-care measures such as maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing stress, and incorporating ergonomic principles into daily activities can also contribute to the prevention and overall well-being of the individual.


Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s elbow, is a condition characterized by pain and inflammation in the tendons on the inner side of the elbow. It can significantly impact an individual’s daily activities and quality of life. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for a successful recovery. A combination of rest, physical therapy, medication, and other interventions can help alleviate pain, reduce inflammation, and promote healing. By adopting preventive measures and practicing self-care, individuals can reduce the risk of developing medial epicondylitis and other similar overuse injuries.


  1. Is medial epicondylitis only common among golfers? No, medial epicondylitis can affect individuals involved in various activities that require repetitive wrist and forearm movements, such as throwing, racket sports, and weightlifting.
  2. How long does it take to recover from medial epicondylitis? The recovery time can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the chosen treatment approach. It may take several weeks to months for complete recovery.
  3. Can I continue playing sports or participating in activities during the treatment of medial epicondylitis? It is advisable to avoid activities that exacerbate the pain and strain on the affected tendons during the treatment phase. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on when it is safe to resume such activities.
  4. Are there any long-term complications associated with medial epicondylitis? With proper treatment and adherence to preventive measures, most individuals recover fully without long-term complications. However, neglecting the condition or returning to activities too soon can lead to chronic pain and further tendon damage.
  5. Can medial epicondylitis be prevented? While it may not be possible to prevent all cases of medial epicondylitis, adopting proper techniques, using appropriate equipment, and implementing preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of developing the condition.
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